Ethereum 2.0, also known as Eth2 or “Serenity”, is an upgrade of the Ethereum network. The update aims to increase the speed, efficiency and scalability of the network. Most importantly, there will be a transition from the proof-of-work consensus mechanism to the proof of stake model. Security audits of the Ethereum 2.0 code are carried out by various organizations, including blockchain security firm Least Authority. Phase 0 is targeting a 2020 launch date, with phases to come in the coming years.
The network is expected to launch with 64 shards, but will not initially support accounts or smart contracts. The Spadina testnet was experiencing issues with its launch. By November 24, there were supposed to be 16,384 validators on the network, with 32 ETH each, making a total of 524,288 ETH staked. It has been confirmed that ETH 2.0 will be introduced on 1 December. The launch of ETH 2.0 is just what the cryptocurrency needs.
Vitalik Buterin has laid out a roadmap for how the next five to ten years might turn out to be for the platform. More scalability means more usage, which means more demand for the currency.
Although it has been a long journey, Ethereum 2.0 is now imminent. The significant upgrade’s aim is to improve the network’s scalability and security by modifying its architecture. Most significantly, the proof-of-work consensus process will be phased out in favor of the proof-of-stake approach.
What is Ethereum 2.0 all about?
Ethereum 2.0, sometimes referred to as Eth2 or “Serenity,” is a version of the Ethereum blockchain. The upgrade attempts to improve the Ethereum network’s speed, efficiency, and scalability. As a result, it will be able to process a greater number of transactions.
Ethereum 2.0 is being released in installments, with the first upgrade scheduled for the end of 2020.
Ethereum 2.0 Release Dates
|Code name||Release date||Release block|
|ETH 2.0 Phase 0 (Beacon Chain)||1 December 2020||0|
|ETH 2.0 Phase 1 (planned)||~Q1/Q2 2022||TBD|
|ETH 2.0 Phase 2 (planned)||~2022||TBD|
What distinguishes Ethereum 2.0 from Ethereum?
What is the distinction between proof of stake and proof of work?
Blockchains such as Ethereum must be able to validate transactions decentralized. Ethereum, like other cryptocurrencies, is currently based on the proof-of-work (PoW) consensus method. Miners employ computer processing power to solve challenging mathematical puzzles and validate new transactions in this system. The first miner to solve a challenge adds a new transaction to the blockchain’s record of all transactions. They are then compensated in cryptocurrency. However, this technique can be somewhat energy intensive.
PoS is distinguished by the fact that, rather than miners, transaction validators are compensated in crypto for the right to validate a transaction. These validators are chosen to propose a block depending on the amount and duration of coin they own.
Additional validators can then confirm that they saw a block. When there are sufficient confirmations, a block may be added to the blockchain. Validators are then compensated for successfully suggesting a block. This is often referred to as “forging” or “minting.”
The primary benefit of PoS is that it consumes significantly less energy than PoW2. This also means that the blockchain does not require a lot of computational power to protect.
How will Ethereum 2.0 outperform Ethereum 1.0 in terms of scalability?
Scalability is a primary argument for upgrading to Ethereum 2.0. The Ethereum 1.0 network is limited to around 30 transactions per second, resulting in latency and congestion. Ethereum 2.0 offers a transaction rate of up to 100,000 per second. This increase will be accomplished by the use of shard chains.
How will Ethereum 2.0 increase its security?
Ethereum 2.0 was created with a focus on security. The majority of point-of-sale systems employ a small number of validators, resulting in a more centralized system and less network security. Ethereum 2.0 requires at least 16,384 validators, significantly increasing its decentralized nature and therefore its security.
However, according to Lior Yaffe, co-founder of Jelurida and principal core developer of the Ardor and Nxt blockchains, the network’s level of involvement may be vulnerable. Numerous groups, including blockchain security firm Least Authority, conduct security assessments of the Ethereum 2.0 code.
The Ethereum Foundation is establishing a dedicated security team for Ethereum 2.0 to explore the cryptocurrency’s possible cybersecurity vulnerabilities. According to a tweet from Ethereum 2.0 developer Justin Drake, the study would cover “fuzzing, reward hunting, pager duty, cryptoeconomic modeling, applied crypto analysis, and formal validation.”
How will Ethereum 2.0 be updated?
Following the deployment of a succession of testnets, including Topaz, Medalla, Spandina, and Zinken, Ethereum 2.0 will be rolled out in three phases: Phase 0, 1, and 2. Phase 0 is scheduled to debut in 2020, with other phases to follow.
Phase 0 will see the implementation of the Beacon Chain. This section contains and administers the validator registry, as well as implementing Ethereum 2.0’s Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus method. The original Ethereum PoW chain will continue to operate concurrently with the Beacon Chain, ensuring data continuity.
The first phase, scheduled to begin in 2021, will enable the merging of PoS shard chains. The network is planned to debut with 64 shards (64 times the throughput of Ethereum 1.0) but will initially be devoid of accounts and smart contracts.
The Ethereum mainnet will formally become a shard and shift to proof of stake with Phase 1.5, an interim update expected for 2021.
Phase 2 will begin in 2021/22 and will include fully working components that are compatible with smart contracts. Additionally, it will involve the addition of Ether accounts, the facilitation of transfers and withdrawals, and the implementation of cross-track transfers and contract calls. It will provide execution environments for scalable Ethereum 2.0 applications.
In September 2020, it was revealed that the Spadina testnet was having difficulties launching. Spadina is a short-term testnet created to experiment with Ethereum 2.0’s genesis, or the process of creating the first block. It is distinct from the bigger Medalla testnet, which serves as a public sandbox for the network’s operational version. The Spadina testnet had issues such as poor participation, “confusion,” and “invalid deposits.”
In October 2020, Ben Edgington, product owner of the ETH 2.0 client Teku at ConsenSys, reported that the Medalla testnet “had really little participation.” He stated that “people are growing tired of testnets” and that “the time has come to move on.”
When is Ethereum 2.0 scheduled to be released?
Ethereum 2.0 will be published on December 1, according to a blog post from the Ethereum Foundation. The launch was conditional on satisfying specific conditions; by November 24, 16,384 validators were scheduled to be on the network, each holding 32 ETH, for a total of 524,288 ETH staked. This condition was reached on 24 November at around 08:30, and it has been announced that ETH 2.0 will be launched on 1 December.
The Ethereum Foundation announced version 1.0 specs for Ethereum 2.0 in November 2020 as part of the launch preparations, including a Launch Pad where people may sign up to become an Ethereum 2.0 validator. Additionally, it has released the primary ETH2 deposit contract.
However, staking performance was slower than anticipated; according to Lito Coen, creator of CryptoTesters, maintaining an Ethereum 2.0 node, which was previously the sole option for staking, was a prospect that average users found “frightening.”
Additionally, the 32 ETH required for stake was an exorbitant number given that ETH is now surging. While this is irrelevant for Ethereum whales, people holding bigger sums of ETH were banned from participation.
Ethereum 2.0’s future
Vitalik Buterin, co-founder of Ethereum, has put out a roadmap for how the next five to 10 years may unfold for Ethereum 2.0.
According to Vitalik Buterin, the previous two years have been a successful shift from “blue sky” research to knowing what is feasible, concrete research and development, and attempting to optimize and implement certain ideas that we already know are relevant. The majority of issues currently revolve “increasingly around growth, and the proportion of development will continue to grow over time,” he believes.
How may Ethereum 2.0 effect the price of Ethereum?
The debut of ETH 2.0, according to some, is precisely what the cryptocurrency needs. According to the Decrypt article, Jamie Anson, founder of Nifty Orchard and organizer of Ethereum London, stated, “Ethereum will have all problems solved once it reaches scalability via layer-2 technology, or ETH 2.0.” “The ball will explode,” he stated.
In other words, more scalability results in increased consumption, which results in increased demand. This should theoretically drive the price of Ethereum to new all-time highs. “When ETH 2.0 and rollups function together, 100,000 transactions per second will be possible,” Anson explained. This will result in an entirely seamless experience for the public,” he continued.
Matt Cutler, CEO of Blocknative, a firm focusing on Mempool’s complexity, is equally bullish about the possibility of gas prices decreasing with the introduction of Ethereum 2.0. According to Decrypt, “our client base views cutting transaction prices and enhancing network efficiency as significant areas of growth.”
Additionally, by incorporating significant milestones, the ecosystem will bolster Ethereum’s development momentum. “Despite the short-term volatility, this will have a long-term favorable influence on the price of ETH,” Cutler added.